Oz Clarke describes Riesling, in his Grapes and Wines, as the “teacher’s pet” of grapes. “I wonder what it feels like,” he asks, “being the wine experts’ favorite grape, yet failing to excite the palates of the vast majority of wine drinkers across the world?” Well, Siegerrebe doesn’t have that problem; it is most definitely not the wine experts’ favorite grape. Mr Clarke, presumably saying nothing because he has nothing nice to say, doesn’t mention this Gewürztraminer and Madeleine Angevine cross at all. The nicest thing that Jancis Robinson’s Oxford Companion to Wine had this to say about it is, “The variety can usefully bolster some blends in England.” But she doesn’t just damn with faint praise, calling the wine flabby, oppressively flavored, and a chore to drink. Now that’s a lady who speaks her mind!
All this reminds me of a cartoon about a couple discussing a movie. The girl reads off a list of negative reviews – one star, two stars, thumbs down, etc, “It’s a good thing we saw those,” says the guy, “Yeah,” agrees the girl, “we might have seen the movie and liked it by mistake!” I’m glad I didn’t read Ms Robinson’s comments until after I tried the wine myself, because I might have ignored it by mistake. I liked the Whidbey Island Winery’s Siegerrebe enough to grow the grape in my bonsai vineyard. It grows well and ripens early in this climate, that puts it on a pretty short list of grape varietals, and I like the wine. Maybe this is just a case of an obscure grape finding a place where it can shine.
First the good news. The Leon Millot are blooming!
I took these photos on 6/12/07, though I first noticed that the Leons were blooming on 6/6/07. The next photo shows the bad news: Hoplia Beetles love to eat flowers, including grape flowers.
At least I think they’re Hoplia Beetles. They fit the description in Jeff Cox’s From Vines to Wines, they’ve shown up at the right (from their point of view anyway) time, and they’re found mainly in the West.
I’ve been going out to the bonsai vineyard every day with a bucket of soapy water. By holding the bucket underneath the cluster they’re feeding on and giving it a tap, I drown the greedy little bugs. I’ll try to control them this way, but I’m looking into chemical controls in case it doesn’t work.
Advice on fertilizing and irrigating conventional vineyards is often easy to come by, but the rules change in a bonsai vineyard where you plant grape vines in pots and trim the roots every year. You must supply water and fertilizer to keep the vines healthy and to get a good crop. The key question is how much.
Grapes are famous for growing in poor soil, and it’s easy to over fertilize. The excess vigor can encourage vegetative growth at the expense of fruit and make the vine hard to manage. Over watering can be a problem too, especially late in the season when the vines are ripening fruit. Excess water will find its way into the grapes, leaving the grower with great looking plump fruit that is unsuitable for making wine. This is why growers often withhold water late in the season.
Vines in a conventional vineyard can send their roots deep into the ground in search of nutrients and water, so they’re almost never cut off the way a potted vine can be. My approach is to always water with a dilute solution (about a tenth of concentration recommended for outdoor plants) of complete fertilizer, like Miracle-Gro, then water according to where we are in the season and what the vine needs. When the vine is growing and demanding water, it gets more fertilizer. Late in the season after most growth is finished and the vine is preparing for dormancy, it gets much less. This simplifies the problem by reducing it to one question, “how much water does the vine need?”
Unfortunately, I can’t give a one-size-fits-all answer like this many gallons (or liters) per week. I usually start with a tentative schedule, like watering (until the well drained soil is thoroughly wet and just starting to drip through the drainage holes) once a week, and watching for signs of water stress to see if I need to supplement. Are the leaves and tendrils strong or limp? Does the soil dry out very quickly? These signs would push me to provide more water. If it’s early in the season, I have a bias toward more water. Later in the season I might tolerate some water stress to avoid over watering. The ripening fruit gives clues too. Firm bulging grapes look terrific, but don’t make great wine and indicate too much water. If the fruit starts to shrivel, like raisins, then you’re at the other extreme of too little water. If you know how to listen, your vines will tell you.
In yesterday’s post, I mentioned that my Pinot Noir clone, ESP374, is not highly regarded. Its biggest problem is that it sets more fruit than it can ripen well. It over-promises and under-delivers, and, ever the optimist, does the same thing year after year. To make good wine from this clone, I pluck out immature grape clusters until there are no more than the vine can ripen. It’s called cluster thinning, and most vines can benefit from it. But how do you know what the right number of clusters is?
There’s the expensive way: you can hire someone else to tell you. There’s the cheap way: you can ask another grower in your area. There are also rules of thumb published in books and on the internet. All of these answers will be for vines, planted in conventional vineyards, that are free to grow their roots as far down as they like. In fact, the answers will usually be in terms of tons/acre (or tonnes/hectare). What about all of us suburbanites growing grape vines in pots? We trim the roots and are left with vines that can produce less than if they were planted in the ground. So even if we could convert tons/acre into pounds/pot, we would still be over cropping. It looks like we’re on our own.
I can’t explain this glaring and puzzling oversight, but here’s how I deal with it. I control the hight of the vine for my convenience; I need to be able to reach the top easily for pruning, harvesting, applying bird netting, and so forth. I look for opportunities to create a spur, and prune each spur so that it’s long enough to push at least one fruitful bud. I suppose I’m relying on the vine to push the right amount of foliage for it’s root system, and managing the buds and clusters so that all the grapes ripen well. I thin to insure that there is only one cluster and at least fourteen leaves per shoot. If I find that some shoots don’t push out enough leaves, I’ll aim for two shoots per cluster next season. To do that I would thin one shoot normally, then remove all clusters from a neighboring shoot. The goal is to make sure that there are enough sugar-producing leaves to ripen all the grapes.
I’m making some changes for my Swenson Red, as I mentioned in this post. As I learn more, my approach will evolve.
In yesterday’s article about pruning, I mentioned that I pruned to spurs on a vertical cordon. That means the trunk is permanent and I maintain short branches of one year old wood, called spurs, that come out of the trunk. If those one year old branches were long, a dozen buds or more, they would be called canes. Canes would make repotting the vines more tedious and would require more support. That’s why I decided to spur prune.
It turns out that some varietals need to be pruned to canes in order to bear fruit. In those varietals, the buds closest to the trunk are not fruitful. If you spur prune them, you’ll get lovely foliage but no grapes. That’s what happened to my Swenson Red last year, and may happen again this year. I pruned in March, and had a vague idea that I should be less aggressive, but I didn’t really know what went wrong or how to fix it. When I prune for next season, I’ll know what to do, but this season, I’ve got longish spurs that aren’t quite canes.
Grape vines need annual pruning. Because I grow mine in pots, they also need annual root trimming. I’m still getting the hang of this, but my current thinking is to train my grape vines to a vertical cordon. The single permanent trunk with fruiting spurs (short one year old branches) will be compact and easy to remove for root trimming. It won’t need much more than a stake for support either.
The photo above shows a Siegerrebe grape vine after I pruned it and just before root trimming. That was on March 28, 2007. You can see two spurs, well they maybe a bit large for spurs, and I’m expecting a small crop on them this year.
I’m trimming the roots in the above photo. My goal is to keep the whole root structure small enough to fit in the pot. I’m also trying to keep the root mass as productive as possible. The roots of any plant, including grape vines, are mostly structural. It’s only the fine tip that is actually collecting water and nutrients for the plant. When I trim the roots then, I’m looking to get rid of the big woody roots and leave a mass of small feeder roots.
This is what it looks like when all is said and done. Now it’s ready to go back in the pot and make me some grapes!
I grow this lesser known wine grape, a Gewürztraminer and Madeleine Angevine cross, in my bonsai vineyard. Here it is on April 30.
The Pinot Noir was waking up on April 8 …
You can’t make great wine without great fruit, and top vineyards don’t, as a rule, hock their best grapes to home wine makers in 100 lb lots. I have bought grapes and made good wine from them, but I’ve always wanted to grow my own. With control over yield and harvest combined with endless fussing, I’ll be bottling a great vintage from my own grapes. That’s the plan, anyway. I had to overcome two big hurdles: wine grapes don’t grow in this climate (I live near Seattle, WA, USA). Even if they did, I don’t enough room, or good soil, in my backyard to grow them.
I can’t tell you how excited I was when I discovered that wine grapes do grow here! Cool climate varieties like Chardonnay and Pinot Noir are being grown commercially in the Puget Sound area and local vineyards/wineries are making wine from locally grown, if more obscure grapes.
Even if the climate is suitable, grapes need a lot of room. They’re normally planted four to eight feet apart in rows that are up to ten feet apart. My 10,000 square foot lot isn’t small, as suburban lots go, but the house (and the patio and the driveway) takes up a good chunk of that. Plus there’s this hard pan about a foot down. Grapes hate that; they’ll put roots down six feet or more easily. I discovered the solution in the Africus Rex bonsai vineyard. Jeff Chorniak has been growing, and making wine from, Cabernet Franc grown in pots like bonsai trees. If he can do it in Toronto, Canada, then I can do it in Bellevue, WA!